The twentieth century can be understood as the century of alienation and encounter. In that century, the image of the individual took hold and challenged all the past assumptions of philosophy and religion. It left Judaism in a state of crisis, demanding a rethinking. In our course, we will wrestle with the philosophy of the great Jewish thinkers of the twentieth century, including the existentialists Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, and Abraham Joshua Heschel, as well as the Zionists: Theodor Herzl, Abraham Isaac Kook, Achad Ha'am, A. D. Gordon, and Vladimir Jabotinsky. The real issue of this class will be for you to begin to build a modern Jewish philosophy of your own.